托福听力中的两个原则

2017-09-24 16:39:46 | 编辑:无 | 有532人参与 | 来自:匿名

在托福听力中,我们都明白一个道理,那就是“得听力者得天下”。尽管如此,听力还是会时不时地成为考生们考途中的“拦路虎”,不是细节听不全,就是主旨把握不好,所以我们今天一起来探讨下托福听力中的那些该学会使用的原则,希望能对考生们有一定的帮助。

1)重复原则

重复原则,毋庸置疑,就是指利用好对话或讲座中反复出现的信息,而这些反复出现的信息常常以两种方式呈现,即原词重复,或者同义替换。

e.g. Why does the student go to see the professor? (TPO40 C1 Q1)

¡        To find out all the requirements for a project.

¡        To discuss a service gap at a restaurant.

¡        To get help understanding concepts relevant to his project.

¡        To get help with designing a business plan.

听力文本:

S: Thanks for seeing me, Professor Jackson.

P: Sure, Tom, what can I do for you?

S: I’m gonna do my term project on service design. Oh, what you see as a customer, the physical layout of the building, the parking lot. And I thought I’d focus on various kinds of eateries: Restaurants, coffee shops, cafeterias. So I’d also analyze where you order your food, where you eat, and so on.

S: So here’s my question. I read something about service standard that kind of confused me. What’s the difference between service design and service standard?

【注】在这篇对话中,学生通过开头的寒暄后,就开始提出自己问题中的关键词service design,之后又出现关键词service standard,并且这两个关键词在后面一直反复出现,最后再结合引出学生问题的关键句:What’s the difference between service design and service standard? 因此,这道题目的最终答案应该锁定service designservice standard的差别,对应的正确答案为Cunderstanding concepts relevant to his project就是相关的同义替换)。

2)术语原则

在讲座中,“术语”是指教授提及的新词或新概念。而且很多术语一般会被写在屏幕上,所以应该快速地熟悉屏幕上的词,并进行缩写,当然最重要的是,紧接下来会有关于这个术语的解释,若在主旨段中出现核心术语,那么该术语的解释常常对应该篇文章主旨题的正确选项。

e.g. What is the lecture mainly about? (TPO15 L1 Q6)

¡        Methods people used to eliminate distractions.

¡        The area of the brain responsible for blocking distractions.

¡        The usefulness of questionnaires in assessing distractibility.

¡        Research about how the brain deals with distractions.

听力文本:

P: For decades, psychologists have been looking at our ability to perform tasks while other things are going on. How we’re able to keep from being distracted and what the conditions for good concentration are. As long ago as 1982, researchers came up with something called the CFQ, the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.

This questionnaire…

【注】这是一篇心理学讲座,本题考查的是全文主旨题,教授在进行大体的心理学研究背景介绍之后,引出了一个术语“CFQ”和相关的术语解释,并且这个术语及术语解释都显示在屏幕上,所以学生应该快速识别该术语的含义并进入该话题的听题状态。最终根据全文关键词distracted, concentration, conditions等,选出其同义替换,即正确选项D

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